NOOSPHERE ANATOMY

See the diagram

Sharding isat the heartof the Noospherearchitecture

NOOSPHERE CBFT

See the diagram

Every Noosphereshard consists ofa set of nodes withvarious functions

Noosphere Shard Diagram

See the diagram

There aretwo approachesto creatingshard-services

SHARD FORKS

Noosphere does not use the concept forks. For a regular blockchain, a fork is the change of the built-in operation algorithms that are critical to the entire system. Thanks to its modular structure, Noosphere allows you to expand functionality by creating new service shards. The end user is free to choose the services they trust, so simultaneous existence of two or more service shards that have the same functionality but different implementation (for example, transaction mixers) is the standard order of operation of Noosphere.

CBFT TECHNICAL

Convolutional Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the main consensus algorithm in Noosphere. Unlike the popular PoS,

CBFT does not distinguish system nodes by size contribution. They are all equal

and are chosen based on the following criteria

– COMPUTING POWER

– INTERNET CONNECTION QUALITY

– HAVING ENOUGH COINS FOR THE DEPOSIT

As the CBFT consensus algorithm was being developed, statistical information was collected reflecting change

of the input data flow rate in the distributed network depending on the time it took to distribute a candidate block,

its size, and processing time. The approximation of the obtained statistics is carried out with the help of the

piecewise-polynomial interpolating cubic spline with the setting of boundary conditions, i.e. for each section

with the number j the approximation function has the form of a polynomial.

The boundary conditions consist in the periodicity condition, i.e. coincidence of the values of the first and second

derivatives on the borders of the interval . The plotting of the spline can be reduced to determining the multiple

ratios by solving systems of linear equations. The interpolating spline is plotted

so as to satisfy the interpolation condition for the table function

To obtain the specific dependence of the input flow rate on time , given the average rate , it is necessary to

multiply the obtained spline by the average rate and divide it by the average value of the spline itself:

where is the actual average input flow rate.

The proposed input flow model suggests that the time between incoming jobs is a continuous random value that may be

distributed according to different distributions, such as the exponential distribution, Poisson distribution, normal distribution, and uniform distribution.

HYBRID SGX-CBFT ALGORITHM

For critical services that have a high probability to be under attack, the user may implement a hybrid consensus protocol, SGX-CBFT. It works the same way as the aforementioned Convolutional BFT, but network participants get an additional opportunity of remote reliability verification of all neighboring nodes thanks to the Intel SGX technology.

CYBER SECURITY: TYPICAL ATTACKS

Blockchain, like any internet-based information system, are susceptible to cyber attacks. Besides the best-known type of attack,DDoS, new methods appear targeting blockchain platforms specifically. Analysis of all these threats, including research into the shortcomings of the architecture of existing blockchain systems that have been subjected to attacks, has made it possible to build effective methods for proactive defense into the Noosphere subsystems.